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人死后QQ、微信号怎么办?无法回避的“数字遗产”

发表时间:2018-07-21    
导读:  最近,德国一起数字遗产官司引发广泛关注德国联邦最高法院判决继承者有权继承过世亲属的社交账户。  官司由一名15岁女孩在
   最近,德国一起数字遗产官司引发广泛关注——德国联邦最高法院判决继承者有权继承过世亲属的社交账户。

  官司由一名15岁女孩在柏林地铁被列车撞倒过世引发。过世女孩的父母有了密码却不能登录孩子的脸书账户,也就无从了解女孩的死究竟是因为自杀,还是源于一场普通的交通事故。

  法院的最终判决给了女孩父母以安慰。但“数字遗产”的追问却并未停歇,由此引发的纠纷不时在全球各个角落出现。

  事实上,这确实是一个无法回避的现实问题。数字时代,E-mail、QQ号、微信等社交网络、个人空间,甚至包括网络使用痕迹、图片、购买的数字音视频产品服务等,已经成为我们有别于现实财产之外的另一种财产——数字虚拟财产。这些“看得见却摸不着”的财产,维系着我们的关系网以及记录着生活的点点滴滴。

  “数字财产”的价值究竟几何,每个人的认知或有不同。而在实际操作中,这些“财产”的继承仍困难重重。尤其当数字财产变成数字遗产时,相关纠纷也越来越多。

  随着网民数量急速扩大,此类纠纷也日益增加。全球网民2017年已达40亿,中国网民达7.5亿。网络经济也大为发展,社交网络急速演进。各类个人数字财产或遗产的经济和情感价值凸显。​

  “数字遗产”的处置主要面临两大难题:一是其法律定位尚不明确;二是许多网络运营商和网络平台与用户签订的协议里有“隐私保护”条款。这就意味着,用户对账户只有使用权,没有拥有权,因此他人不能得到用户的内容,也就排除了数字遗产继承权。

  目前,过世者的网络数据保护仍处于法律的灰色地带,社会、网络运营商和平台到底应该如何对待数字遗产?各国都在探索中。

 

  美国总体尚未有明确的立法支持,但“数字遗产”已开始被写入一些州的法律。英国、德国等国家的法律中,已有对数字遗产的一些规定,并在持续完善中。此外,各个互联网公司和IT公司对用户网络数据有不同的处理方式。

  此次德国数字遗产官司的判决给人以启示,同时也亟待理清两个方面的问题。

  首先,是否可以将数字信息确认为“财产”,从而使继承人对于被继承人数字信息的获取有法律依据。其次,获得数字遗产,是否会侵犯被继承人以及与被继承人私信的其他人的隐私?德国这个判例意味着,私信类的数字内容完全可以参照信件来考虑。

  更加让人关注的是,目前很多互联网产品多为集成化服务,例如社交软件可以购买理财产品、转账、捆绑会员卡、公交卡、储值卡、缴纳各种税费。也就是说,很多用户的账户里,已经不仅仅存在无法被确认为“财产”的数字信息,还有实实在在的财产。在这种现状下,推进用户账户及数字信息的继承人获取制度已成为一个迫切需要解决的问题。















 

 

Recently, a German digital inheritance lawsuit has aroused widespread concern. The German Supreme Court ruled that the successor had the right to inherit the social accounts of his dead relatives.

 

The case was triggered by a 15 year old girl who was knocked down by a train on the Berlin subway. An old girl's parents have a password but can't log in to the child's face book account, and they do not know whether the death of a girl is because of suicide or a common traffic accident.

 

The court's final judgement gave comfort to the girl's parents. However, the question of "Digital Heritage" has not ceased, and disputes arising from it have appeared in every corner of the globe from time to time.

 

In fact, this is indeed an unavoidable reality. In the digital age, E-mail, QQ, WeChat and other social networks, personal space, and even the Internet use traces, pictures, and the digital audio and video products purchased, have become another kind of property other than the real property, the digital virtual property. These "invisible but intangible" properties maintain our network of relationships and record the dribs and drabs of our lives.

 

The value of "digital property" is geometrically different from that of everyone. In practice, the succession of these property is still difficult. Especially when digital property becomes digital heritage, there are more and more disputes.

 

With the rapid expansion of Internet users, such disputes are also increasing. The number of netizens in the world has reached 4 billion in 2017 and 750 million in China. The network economy is also developing rapidly, and the social network is developing rapidly. The economic and emotional values of various types of personal digital property or heritage are highlighted.

 

The disposal of "Digital Heritage" is mainly faced with two major problems: first, its legal position is not clear; the two is that many network operators and network platforms have "privacy protection" clauses in the agreements signed with users. This means that the user has only the right to use the account without ownership, so that others can not get the user's content, and exclude the right to inherit the digital inheritance.

 

At present, the Internet data protection of the dead is still in the gray area of law. How should the social network operators and platforms treat digital heritage? All countries are exploring.

 

 

The United States as a whole has not yet made clear legislative support, but the "Digital Heritage" has begun to be written into some state laws. In the laws of Britain, Germany and other countries, some provisions on digital heritage have been established and are being perfected continuously. In addition, different Internet Co and IT companies have different ways of processing user network data.

 

The decision of the German digital legacy lawsuit is inspiring, and it is also urgent to clarify two aspects.

 

First, whether digital information can be recognized as "property", so that the heir has legal basis for obtaining the digital information of the heir. Secondly, will access to digital heritage infringe upon the privacy of the heir and other persons who are privately trusted by the heir? This case in Germany means that the digital content of private credit can be considered by mail.

 

More concern is that at present, many Internet products are integrated services, such as social software that can buy financial products, transfer accounts, bind membership cards, bus cards, store cards, and pay various taxes and fees. That is to say, in many accounts, there are not only digital information that can not be recognized as "property", but also real assets. Under such circumstances, it has become an urgent problem to advance the succession system of user accounts and digital information.

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